References Pertaining to Transgenic DNA and Protein and Livestock Products (Meat, Milk, Eggs)



Aeschbacher, K., L. Meile, R. Messikommer and C. Wenk. 2001.  Genetically modified maize in diets for chickens and laying hens: influence on performance and product quality. Proceedings: International Symposium on Genetically Modified Crops and Co-products as Feeds for Livestock, pp 41-42, September, Nitra, Slovak Republic.


Aeschbacher, K., L. Meile, R. Messikommer and C. Wenk. 2002.  Influence of genetically modified maize on performance and product quality of chickens. Proc. Soc. Nutr. Physiol. 11:196.


Aeschbacher, K., R. Messikommer, L. Meile, and C. Wenk. 2005. Bt176 corn in poultry nutrition: Physiological characteristics and fate of recombinant plant DNA in chickens. Poultry Sci. 84(3):385-394.


Aeschbacher, K., R. Messikommer and C. Wenk. 2001.  Physiological characteristics of Bt-176 corn in poultry  and destiny of recombinant plant DNA in poultry products. Annals of Nutr. And Metab.45(Suppl. 1):376.


Alexander, T.W., R. Sharma, M.Y. Deng, A.J. Whetsell, J.C. Jennings, Y. Wang, E. Okine, D. Darmgaard, and T.A. McAllister.  2004. Use of quantitative real-time and conventional PCR to assess the stability of the cp4 epsps transgene from Roundup Ready® canola in the intestinal, ruminal, and fecal contents of sheep.  J. Biotechnol. 112:255-266.


Artim, L., S. Charlton, G. Dana, M. Faust, K. Glenn, G. Hartnell, P. Hunst, J. Jennings,  and R. Shillito. 2001.  Animal performance trials with bt crops. Biotechnology of Bacillus thuringensis and its environmental impact. Australian National University of Canberra Abstract S6.1.


Arumuganathan, K and E.D. Earle. 1991 Nuclear DNA content of some important plant species. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 9, 208-218.


Ash, J.A., S.E. Scheideler and C.L. Novak. 2000.  The Fate of Genetically Modified Protein from Roundup ReadyÒ Soybeans in the Laying Hen.  Poultry Sci. 79 (Suppl. 1):26. Abstract 111.

Ash, J., C. Novak, and S.E. Scheideler. 2003. The fate of genetically modified protein from Roundup Ready soybeans in laying hens. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 12:242:245.

Aulrich, K., H. Böehme, R. Daenicke, I. Halle, and G. Flachowsky. 2002.  Novel feeds – a review of experiments at our Institute. Food Research International 35:285-293.

Aulrich, K.H., G. Pahlow, and G. Flachowsky. 2004. Influence of ensiling on the DNA-degradation in isogenic and transgenic corn. (Einfluss der Silerung auf den DNA-Abbau in isiogenem und transgenem Mais). Proc. Soc. Nutr. Physiol. 13:112.

Aulrich, K., T. Reuter and G. Flachowsky. 2002. The fate of foreign DNA in farm animals fed with genetically modified plants. Proc. Soc. Nutr. Physiol. 11:187-188.

Aumaitre, A., K. Aulrich, A. Chesson, G. Flachowsky and G. Piva. 2002.  New feeds from genetically modified plants:  substantial equivalence, nutritional equivalence, digestibility, and safety for animals and the food chain. Livestock Prod. Sci. 74:223-238.

Beagle, J.M., G.A. Apgar, K.L. Jones, K.E. Griswold, X. Qui, and M.P. Martin.  2004. The digestive fate of the gdh A transgene in corn diets fed to weanling swine. J. Anim. Sci. 82(Suppl. 1):457.  Abstract 913.


Beever, D.E. and K. Glenn. 2002. A safety evaluation of genetically modified feedstuffs for livestock production: the fate of novel DNA and protein. Xth International Congress, Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP), Ashok Hotel, New Delhi, India – September 23-27, 2002, p. 256, Abstract.


Beever, D.E. and C.F. Kemp. 2000. Safety issues associated with the DNA in animal feed derived from genetically modified crops.  A review of scientific and regulatory procedures. Livestock Feeds and Feeding 70, 175-182.

Beever, D.E. and R.H. Phipps. 2001.  The fate of plant DNA and novel proteins in feeds for farm livestock: A United Kingdom perspective.  J. Anim. Sci. 79: E290-E295.

Broll, H. J. Zagon, A. Butschke, A. Leffke, A. Spiegelberg, H. Böhme, and G. Flachowsky. 2005. The fate of DNA of transgenic inulin synthesizing potatoes in pigs. J. Animal and Feed Sci. 14(Suppl. 1):337-340.

Castillo, A.R., M.R. Gallardo, M. Maciel, J. M. Giordano, G.A.Conti, M.C. Gaggiotti, O. Quaino, C. Gianni, and G.F. Hartnell.  2004. Effects of feeding rations with genetically modified whole cottonseed to lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 87:1778-1785.

Chesson, A., 2001. Assessing of safety of GM food crops. Issues Environ. Sci. Technol. 15, 1–24.

Chiter, A., J.M. Forbes, and G.E. Blair. 2000. DNA stability in plant tissues: implications for the possible transfer of genes from genetically modified food. FEBS Letters 481:164-168.

Chowdhury, E.H., H. Kuribara, A. Hino, P. Sultana, O. Mikami, N. Shimada, K.S. Guruge, M. Saito, and Y. Nakajima. 2003.  Detection of corn intrinsic and recombinant DNA fragments and Cry1Ab protein in the gastrointestinal contents of pigs fed genetically modified corn Bt11. J Anim. Sci. 81:2546-2551.

Chowdhury, E.H., O. Mikami, Y. Nakajima, H. Kuribara, A. Hino, K. Suga, M. Hanazumi, and Y. Yomemochi.  2003.  Detection of genetically modified maize DNA fragments in  the intestinal contents of pigs fed Starlink CBH351.  Vet. Human Toxicol. 45(2):95-96.

Duggan, P.S., P. A. Chambers, J. Heritage, and J.M. Forbes. 2000. Survival of free DNA encoding antibiotic resistance from transgenic maize and the transformation activity of DNA in ovine saliva, ovine rumen fluid and silage effluent. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 191:71-77.

Duggan, P.S., Chambers, P.A., Heritage, J., Forbes, J.M.  2003  Fate of genetically modified maize DNA in the oral cavity and rumen of sheep.  Br. J. Nutrition, 89 (2), 159-166.

Doerfler W. 2000 Foreign DNA in Mammalian Systems.  Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.l.

Einspanier, R., A. Klotz, J. Kraft, K. Aulrich, R. Poser, F. Schwägele, G. Jahreis, and G. Flachowsky. 2001.  The fate of forage plant DNA in farm animals:  a collaborative case-study investigating cattle and chicken fed recombinant plant material. European Food Research Technology 212, 129-143.

Einspanier, R., B. Lutz, S. Rief, O. Berezina, V. Zverlov, W. Schwarz, and J. Mayer. 2004. Tracing residual recombinant feed molecules during digestion and rumen bacterial diversity in cattle fed transgene maize. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 218:269-273.

El Sanhorty, R.M. E., 2004. Quality control for foods produced by genetic engineering. Disseration. Technische Universität Berlin.

Food and Agriculture Organisation and the World Health Organisation of the United Nations. 1991. Strategies for assessing the safety of food produced by biotechnology. Report of Joint FAO/WHO Consultation. World Health Organisation Geneva.

FAO/WHO. 2000. “Safety aspects of genetically modified foods of plant origin. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Consultation,” World Health Organization, 2000.

Faust, M. and L. Miller. 1997.  Study finds no Bt in milk.  IC-478.  Fall Special Livestock Edition. pp 6-7.  Iowa State University Extension, Ames, Iowa.

Faust, M.A. 2002. New feeds from genetically modified plants:  the US approach to safety for animals and the food chain. Livestock Prod. Sci. 74:239-254.

Flachowsky, G. 2004. Futtermittel aus gentechnisch veränderten Pflanzen in der Milchkuhfhtterung. (Feedstuffs from genetically modified plants in dairy cow feeding). Kieler Milchwirtschaftliche Forschungsberichte 56(3):163-178.

Flachowsky, G. and K. Aulrich.  2001.  The Use of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) in Animal Nutrition.  Surveys on Animal Nutrition, 29, 45 – 79.

Flackowsky, G. and H. Böhme. 2004. Zum Einsatz von Futtermitteln aus gentechnisch veränderten Pflanzen (GvP) in der Schweinernährung. 10. Bernburger Biotechnik-Workshop, Stand und Perspektiven der Biotechnologie in der Schweinehaltung, 14. und 15. Mai 2004, pp 87-103.


Flachowsky, G., K. Aulrich, A. Berk, R. Daenicke, and T. Reuter. 2002. Nutritional Assessment of feeds from genetically modified (GM) crops. Proc. Soc. Nutr. Physiol. 11:183-186.

Flachowsky, G., A. Chesson, and K. Aulrich. 2005. Animal nutrition with feeds from genetically modified plants. Archives of Animal Nutrition 59(1):1-40.

Forbes, J.M., G.E. Blair, A. Chiter, and S. Perks. 2000.  Effect of feed processing conditions on DNA fragmentation. U. K. MAFF Report CS0116.

Gardner M.L.G.  1988. Gastrointestinal absorption of intact proteins. Ann. Rev. Nutr. 8:329-350.

Gawienowski M. C., S.R. Eckhoff, P. Yang, P.J. Rayapati, T. Binder, and D.P. Briskin.  1999.  Fate of maize DNA during steeping, wet-milling and processing. Cereal Chem. 76:371-374.

He, Y., I.R. Sanderson, and W.A. Walker.  1994.  Uptake, Transport and Metabolism of Exogenous Nucleosides in Intestinal Epithelial Cell Cultures. J. Nutr. 124:  1942-1949.

Hohlweg, U. and W. Doerfler.  2001. On the fate of plant or other foreign genes upon the uptake in food or after intramuscular injection in mice.  Mol Genet Genomics 265: 225-233.

Hupfer, C., J. Mayer, H. Hotzel, K. Sachse, and K. Engel.  1999.  The effect of ensiling on PCR-based detection of genetically modified Bt maize.  Eur Food Res Technol 209: 301-304.

Japan MAFF.  2001.  No Traces of Modified DNA in Poultry Fed on GM Corn.  Nature 409:657.

Jennings, J.C., L.D. Albee, D.C. Kolwyck, J.B. Surber, M.L. Taylor, G.F. Hartnell, R.P. Lirette, and K.C. Glenn. 2003. Attempts to detect transgenic and endogenous plant DNA and transgenic protein in muscle from broilers fed YieldGard Corn Borer corn. Poultry Sci. 82:371-380.

Jennings, J. C., Kolwyck, D. C., Kays, S. B., Whetsell, A. J., Surber, J. B., Cromwell, G. L., Lirette, R. P., and Glenn, K. C.  2003.  Determining whether transgenic and endogenous plant DNA and transgenic protein are detectable in muscle from swine fed Roundup Ready soybean meal. J. Anim. Sci. 81:1447–1455.

Jennings, J.C., A.J. Whetsell, N.R. Nicholas, B.M. Sweeney, M.B. Klaften, S.B. Kays, G.F. Hartnell, R.P.Lirette,  and K.C. Glenn. 2003. Determining whether transgenic or endogenous plant DNA is detectable in dairy milk or beef organs. Bulletin 383/2003 of the International Dairy Federation, p. 41-46.


Jonas, A.D., I. Elmadfa, K.H. Engel, K.J. Heller, G. Kozianowski, A. König, D. Müller, J.F. Narbonne, W. Wackernagel, and J. Kleiner. 2001. Safety considerations of DNA in food. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 45, 235-254.

Kessler, D.A., M.R. Taylor, J.H. Maryanski, E.L. Flamm, and L.S. Kahl.  1992. The Safety of Foods Developed by Biotechnology. Science 256, 1747-1749.

Khumnirdpetch, V., U. Intarachote, S. Treemanee, S. Tragoonroong and S. Thummabood. 2001. Detection of GMOs in the broilers that utilized genetically modified soybean meals as a feed ingredient.  Plant & Animal Genome IX Conference, Town & Country Hotel, San Diego, January 13-17, 2001 San Diego, CA (Abstr.)(Poster 585,

Klaften, M., A. Whetsell, J. Webster, R. Grewal, E. Fedyk, R. Einspanier, J.  Jennings, R. Lirette, and K. Glenn. 2004.  Development of PCR Methods to Detect Plant DNA in Animal Tissues, Chapter 6 in Agricultural Biotechnology: Challenges and Prospects, M.K. Bhalgat,, W.P. Ridley, A.S. Felsot, J.N. Seiber, Editors, ACS Symposium Series 866; American Chemical Society:

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Klotz, A. and R. Einspanier. 1998. Detection of "novel-feed" in animals?  Injury of consumers of meat or milk is not expected. Mais 3, 109-111.

Klotz, A., J. Mayer, and R. Einspanier.  2002.  Degradation and possible carry over of feed DNA monitored in pigs and poultry.  Eur Food Res Technol., 214, 271-275.

Lutz, B. S. Wiedemann, R. Einspanier, J. Mayer, and C. Albrecht. 2005.  Degradation of Cry1Ab protein from genetically modified maize in the bovine gastrointestinal tract.  J. Agr. Food Chem. 53:1453-1456.

MAFF. 1999.  Detection of modified organisms in food.  MAFF R & D surveillance report No. 415.

Marzok, M.A.T.A.  2004. Detection of genetically modified soybeans and maize in Egypt as well as comparative nutritional safety investigations of isogenic and transgenic (Bt) maize in broiler nutrition: Broiler performance, degradation and metabolic fate of maize DNA in some tissues and organs. Dissertation, Freie Universität Berlin, ISBN 3-89820-668-8, Mensch & Buch Verlag, Berlin.

Maturin Sr., L. and Curtiss III.  1977.  Degradation of DNA by Nucleases in Intestinal Tract of Rats.  Science 196:  216-218.

Mazza, R., M. Soave, M. Morlacchini, G. Piva, and A. Marocco. 2005. Assessing the transfer of genetically modified DNA from feed to animal tissues. Transgenic Research 14:775-784.

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McAllan, A. B.  1982. The fate of nucleic acids in ruminants.  Prac. Nutr. Soc. 41: 309-317.

Mercer, D.K., K.P. Scott, L.A. Glover, and H.J. Flint. 1999. Fate of free DNA in human saliva and transformation of oral bacteria after incubation with saliva. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 65: 6-10.

Nielsen, C. R., K.G. Berdal, A.M. Bakke-McKellep, and A. Holst-Jensen. 2005. Dietary DNA in blood and organs of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.),  European Food Research and Technology 221:1-8.

OECD. 1998. “Report of the OECD Workshop on the Toxicological and Nutritional Testing of Novel Foods,” Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development.

OECD. 2000.  “Report of the OECD Task Force for the Safety of Novel Foods and Feeds,” Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development.

Phipps, R.,  D. Beever, and A. Tingey.  2001.  Detection of transgenic DNA in bovine milk:  Results for cows receiving a TMR containing maize grain modified for insect protection (MON 810).  J. Anim. Sci.  79(Suppl. 1):114-115 Abstract  476 or J.Dairy Sci. 84(Suppl. 1):114-115.  Abstract 476.

Phipps, R.H. and D.E. Beever. 2001. Detection of transgenic DNA in milk from cows receiving herbicide tolerant (CP4 epsps) soybean meal. Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the European Association of Animal Production, p. 142, August, Budapest, Hungary.

Phipps, R.H., D.E. Beever, and D.J. Humphries.  2002.  Detection of transgenic DNA in milk from cows receiving herbicide tolerant (CP4EPSPS) soyabean meal.  Livestock Prod. Sci, 74: (3) 269-273.

Phipps, R.H., E.R. Deaville, and B.C. Maddison. 2003. Detection of transgenic and endogenous plant DNA in rumen fluid, duodenal digesta, milk, blood, and feces of lactating dairy cows. J.Dairy Sci. 86:4070-4078.

Phipps, R.H., E.R. Deaville, B.C. Maddison, J.D. Sutton, D.E. Beever and D.I. Givens. 2003.  Detection of transgenic protein and DNA in bovine milk and the effect of trangenes on nutrient digestion and milk production in dairy cows.

Poms, R.E., W. Hochsteiner, K. Luger, J. Glössl, and H. Foissy. 2003. Model studies on the detectability of genetically modified feeds in milk. Journal of Food Protection, 66, 304-310.

Qiu, X. G.A. Apgar, K.E. Griswold, J.M. Beagle, M.P. Martin, K.L. Jones, M.J. Iqbal, and D.A. Lightfoot. 2004. Digestive fate of a gdhA gene from a genetically modified corn fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 82(Suppl. 1):329. Abstract W66.

Rang, A., B. Linke, and B. Jansen. 2005.  Detection of RNA variants transcribed from the transgene in Roundup Ready soybean. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 220:438-443.

Reuter, T. and K. Aulrich. 2003. Investigations on genetically modified maize (Bt-maize) in pig nutrition: Fate of feed ingested foreign DNA in pig bodies. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 216:185-192.

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Rossi, F., M. Morlacchini, G. Fusconi, A. Pietri, R. Mazza, and G. Piva. 2005. Effect of Bt corn on broiler growth performance and fate of feed-derived DNA in the digestive tract. Poultry Sci. 84:1022-1030.

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